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#include <stdio.h> typedef struct _vector { int x; int y; } vector_type; //void printPoint(struct _vector point); void printPoint(vector_type point); int main() { //////////////////////////////////////// // Declaring a struct without typedef // //////////////////////////////////////// /// Method 1 /// /* The form of the stuct is defined and given the identifier _vectorA */ /* The vectorA variable is then declared to be a struct of form _vectorA */ /* (The underscore has no special meaning here.) */ struct _vectorA { int x; int y; }; struct _vectorA vectorA; /* Members x and y are accessed using the '.' operator */ vectorA.x = 10; vectorA.y = 20; printf("vectorA: (%d,%d)\n",vectorA.x,vectorA.y); /// Method 2 /// /* The form of the struct is included in the declaration statement */ /* for vectorB. The form identifier can be reused later to declare */ /* additional structs with the same form, such as vectorB2 */ struct _vectorB { int x; int y; } vectorB; struct _vectorB vectorB2; vectorB.x = 30; vectorB.y = 33; vectorB2.x = 36; vectorB2.y = 37; printf("vectorB: (%d,%d)\n",vectorB.x,vectorB.y); printf("vectorB2: (%d,%d)\n",vectorB2.x,vectorB2.y); /// Method 3 - variation /// /* If the struct form is combined with the declaration, the form */ /* identifier is optional. Of course without it, no additional stucts */ /* of the same form can be declared later on. */ struct { int x; int y; } vectorC; vectorC.x = 40; vectorC.y = 44; printf("vectorC: (%d,%d)\n",vectorC.x,vectorC.y); ///Method 4/// /* In addition to declaring a variable as a struct, a variable may be */ /* declared as a pointer to a struct. Multiple struct variables and */ /* pointers to structs may be declared at the same time */ /* (Once again, the struct identifier _vectorD is optional) */ struct _vectorD { int x; int y; } vectorD, *vectorD_ptr=NULL; vectorD_ptr = &vectorD; vectorD.x = 50; vectorD.y = 55; printf("vectorD: (%d,%d)\n",vectorD.x,vectorD.y); /* When accessing a struct member via a pointer, one must use '->' */ vectorD_ptr->x = 56; vectorD_ptr->y = 59; printf("vectorD: (%d,%d) ",vectorD_ptr->x,vectorD_ptr->y); printf("//Set and accessed via pointer\n"); ////////////////////////////////////// // Declaring a struct using typedef // ////////////////////////////////////// /* A new variable type may be defined using typedef, which can then be */ /* used to declare variables and pointers to variables, etc... just like */ /* any other data type. */ typedef struct _vectorE { //Or just: typedef struct { int x; int y; } vectorE_type; /* Decare vectorE and vectorE_ptr which will hold the address of vectorE */ vectorE_type vectorE, *vectorE_ptr=NULL; vectorE_ptr = &vectorE; vectorE.x = 60; vectorE.y = 66; printf("vectorE: (%d,%d)\n",vectorE.x,vectorE.y); vectorE_ptr->x = 63; vectorE_ptr->y = 65; printf("vectorE: (%d,%d) ",vectorE_ptr->x,vectorE_ptr->y); printf("//Set and accessed via pointer\n"); //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Initalizing a struct using designated initializers // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// typedef struct { int x; int y; } vectorF_type; /* Initializing a struct without specifying the value/field assocation has */ /* various downsides. One must refer back to the definition to know the /* field order and the order might change, resulting in broken code. */ vectorF_type vectorF1 = {70,77}; //Without designating the fields printf("vectorF1: (%d,%d)\n",vectorF1.x,vectorF1.y); /* Using designated initializers fixes these issues */ vectorF_type vectorF2 = {.x=80, .y=88}; printf("vectorF2: (%d,%d)\n",vectorF2.x,vectorF2.y); //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Initalizing a struct using a compound literal // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// /* If you want to declare and initalize a struct seperatly, or if you */ /* want to assign new values using the initialization syntax then you */ /* must use a compound literal, which behaves pretty much like a cast. */ /* The "cast" tells the compiler how to handle the values in the braces. */ vectorF_type vectorF3; vectorF3 = (vectorF_type){90,99}; //Would fail without "cast" printf("vectorF3: (%d,%d)\n",vectorF3.x,vectorF3.y); //Can also combine with designated initializers vectorF3 = (vectorF_type){.y=92,.x=91}; //Can designate the values in any order printf("vectorF3: (%d,%d)\n",vectorF3.x,vectorF3.y); //Can be used to pass anonymous structures to functions //printPoint({.x=100,.y=101}); <-- Will fail to compile printPoint((vector_type){.x=100,.y=101}); return 0; } void printPoint(vector_type point) { printf("vector: (%d,%d)\n",point.x,point.y); }

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